Hướng dẫn cấu trúc câu và liên kết câu cho bài thi viết b1,b2

Cấu trúc câu (Sentence structures)

Sentence structures

  1. Simple sentence (Câu đơn) S + V + O + ADV.

– I come from HCMC in Vietnam.

– I like learning English.

– I usually listen to music in my free time.

– I have been here for ten days.

  1. Compound sentence (Câu ghép, nối câu, mệnh đề)

2.1. Câu ghép đẳng lập: có 2 mệnh đề đẳng lập được nối với nhau bằng các liên từ

Mệnh đề 1 (S + V + O)

Liên từ

Mệnh đề 2

(S + V + O)

Everybody should learn at least one foreign language.

   
     
     
     
     
     

FANBOYS

 

Mệnh đề 1

(S + V + O)

Liên từ

Mệnh đề 2

(S + V + O)

Everybody should learn at least one foreign language. For (vì/ bởi vì)

it can improve your chances of getting a job.

Knowing a foreign language makes

international travel easier

And

(và)

It can provide you with a better

understanding of another culture.

Children do not spend enough time

studying English in class

Nor

(Cũng không)

do they practice it outside

classrooms.

A growing number of companies are

expanding their business into several

countries around the world

But

(nhưng mà)

They can’t do it without hiring

people who speak at least one

foreign language.

We can learn foreign languages by

taking a course at a language center

Or

(hoặc)

We can self-study by watching

films in foreign languages.

Learning a foreign language benefits

our brain

Yet

(song/ vậy mà/

tuy nhiên)

Many people, especially the

youth, resist learning it.

Bilinguals (người biết 2 ngôn ngữ)

tend to have bigger brains and better

memories

So

(do vậy/ vì vậy)

It is much easier for them to learn

anything.

2.2. Câu ghép chính phụ: Gồm 1 mệnh đề chính (có thể đứng 1 mình) & 1 mệnh đề

phụ

Mệnh đề 1

(S + V + O/Adv)

Từ nối

Mệnh đề 2

(S + V + O/Adv)

Nguyên nhân

Traveling by private transportation,

you don’t need to worry about your

belongings or crazy strangers

; therefore,

; hence,

; thus,

(do vậy/ vì vậy)

Hệ quả

It offers a safer and more reliable

way to travel.

Hệ quả

Because

Nguyên nhân2 | P a g e

VSTEP PREPARATION

Prices of public transportation are

much more affordable and equal

Since

As

Due to/owning the

fact that

They are hugely subsidized by

the governments to benefit the

public.

Many people are reluctant to use

public transportation

(be reluctant to + Vo = ngần ngại

làm gì)

Although/though

(mặc dù)

While/whereas

(trong khi)

Đối lập/ Nhượng bộ

It is beneficial to both human

beings and the environment.

Mục đích

In order to + Vo,

In order for (ai/cái gì) + to Vo,

In order to encourage more people

to use public transportation,

In order for more people to use

public transportation,

Hành động

S + V + O.

Governments should invest more

in enhancing the public transport

systems.

Kết quả

If (nếu)

As long as (miễn là)

Providing that (với

điều kiện là)

Unless (trừ khi)

Điều kiện

– Có khả năng xảy ra ở hiện tại/tương lai: S + will/won’t + Vo if/as long as/ providing that

S + V(hiện tại đơn).

E.g., More and more people will use public transportation if the public transport system

becomes more convenient and reliable.

Giả thuyết trái với thực tế: S + would/wouldn’t + Vo if S + V (quá khứ đơn).

E.g., If global warming didn’t happen, the ice at both poles wouldn’t melt.

Combine two sentences into one using connectors.

  1. Higher education (Giáo dục đại học)

– Higher education opens the door to better job opportunities. Most jobs require specific knowledge and

skills.

→ Higher education opens the door to better job opportunities because/since/as/ due to the fact that

most jobs require specific knowledge and skills.

– Repetitive manual jobs will be soon replaced by machines. Higher education is indispensable. (không

thể thiếu/cần thiết)

→ Repetitive manual jobs will be soon replaced by machines; thus/, therefore,/hence, higher education

is indispensable.

Complete the following sentences:

  1. If more and more people use public transportation, ……3 | P a g e

VSTEP PREPARATION

traffic congestion will be mitigated.

the environmental pollution will decrease.

the number of private vehicles will decrease.

fewer pollutants will be released into the environment.

  1. When people have a chance to study abroad, ……

+ they can broaden their horizons (mở rộng tầm nhìn) by attending high-quality universities.

+ they can be exposed to (tiếp xúc với) different cultures and customs so they can broaden their

knowledge and their horizons.

+ there will be more job choices for them. In other words, they can choose to continue living and

looking for a job abroad or come back to their country with better job prospects. (triển vọng nghề nghiệp

tốt hơn)

+ they will study foreign languages better because there are more chances for them to practice the

languages.

  1. Câu bị động (Passive voice sentences)

S + “be” + V3 + by/with/for + N/Ving.

Thì

Chủ động

Bị động

Hiện tại đơn

S + Vo/V-s/-es + O.

E.g., The government subsidizes public

transportation.

S + is/am/are + V_ed/V3.

E.g., Public transportation is subsidized by the

government.

Hiện tại tiếp

diễn

S + is/am/are + Ving + O.

E.g., The government is considering a

stricter law on environmental protection.

S + is/are/am + being + V_ed/V3.

E.g., A stricter law on environmental protection is being

considered by the government.

Hiện tại hoàn

thành

S + has/have + V_ed/V3 + O.

E.g., The government has taken a lot of

actions to reduce its negative impacts.

S + has/have + been + V_ed/V3.

E.g. A lot of actions have been taken to reduce its

negative impacts.

Quá khứ đơn

S + V_ed/V2 + O.

E.g., Our director established our company

in 2000.

S + was/were + V_ed/V3.

E.g., Our company was established in 2000.

Quá khứ tiếp

diễn

S + was/were + Ving + O.

E.g., The company was launching a new

marketing campaign at that time.

S + was/were + being + V_ed/V3.

E.g., A new marketing campaign was being launched at

that time.

Quá khứ

hoàn thành

S + had + V_ed/V3 + O.

E.g., If they had discovered the problem

earlier, the impacts wouldn’t have been so

serious.

S + had been + V_ed/V3.

E.g. If the problem had been discovered earlier, the

impacts wouldn’t have been so serious.

Tương lai

đơn

S + will + V + O.

E.g., They will transport these goods by

airplane.

S + will be + V_ed/V3.

E.g., These goods will be transported by airplane. 4 | P a g e

VSTEP PREPARATION

Modal verbs

S + can/could/…..+ Vo + O.

E.g., People can get access to open

education resources freely in public

libraries.

S + can/could/…..+ be + V_ed/V3.

E.g., Open education resources can be freely

accessed in public libraries.

Thể bị động thường không được dùng với các thì

tiếp diễn (tương lai/hoàn thành); thay vào đó ta

dùng cụm: giới từ + danh từ

+ in progress = happening/being done

E.g., The preparation for the flight will be in

progress when the CEO arrives at the airport.

+ in training (for sth) = đang được đào tạo để..

E.g., By the end of next month, you will have been

in training for taking VSTEP for 2 months.

+ under consideration/discussion = đang được

xem xét/thảo luận

E.g., A new law is under consideration.

+ under construction = being built/constructed

E.g., A new website is under construction.

Khi muốn đề cập đến quan điểm của người khác,

thì ta dùng cấu trúc câu bị động sau đây:

  • N + (động từ be) + believed to /regarded

as/considered to / expected to /known

to/said to…..

E.g., Tourism is expected to become a major part

of that country’s economy.

  • It is believed/known/thought/said/

accepted/ suggested/ expected/estimated/

agreed/argued…+ that ………..

E.g., It is expected that tourism will be a major part

of that country’s economy.

Practice: Change the following sentences into passive voice.

Topic: Environment protection

What should governments do to protect the environment/reduce the negative impacts of

environmental pollution/solve the environmental problems?

  1. Governments should introduce and enforce laws to protect the environment/ limit the emissions

from factories. (Chính phủ nên ban hành và củng cố các luật bảo vệ môi trường/hạn chế khí thải từ các

nhà máy)

Laws should be introduced and enforced by governments to protect the environment/limit the

emissions from factories.

– It is suggested that governments should introduce and enforce laws to ……

– To protect the environment/limit emissions from factors, laws should be introduced and enforced.

  1. Governments should invest more in renewable/alternative/clean energies such as solar, wind or

water power. (Chính phủ nên đầu tư nhiều hơn vào các nguồn năng lượng tái sinh/thay thế/sạch như là

điện mặt trời/gió/thủy điện)VSTEP PREPARATION

– Renewable/alternative/clean energies such as solar, wind or water power should be invested more by

the governments.

– It is suggested that governments should invest more in renewable/alternative/clean energies such as

solar, wind or water power.

– Governments are expected to invest more in renewable energies such as …..

  1. Governments can impose “green taxes” on drivers and airline companies. (Chính phủ có thể áp thuế

xanh đối với tài xế và các hãng hàng không)

– “Green taxes” can be imposed on drivers and airline companies by governments.

– It is suggested that governments can impose “green taxes” on drivers and airline companies.

– Drivers and airline companies should be “green taxed” by the government.

  1. Governments should raise people’s awareness of the environmental protection. (Chính phủ có thể

nâng cao nhận thức của người dân về vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường).

– People’s awareness of environmental protection should be raised by the governments.

– It is suggested that governments should raise/heighten people’s awareness of environmental protection.

  1. Governments should organize campaigns to promote recyling/environmental protection. (Chính

phủ nên tổ chức các chiến dịch nhằm thúc đẩy việc tái chế/bảo vệ môi trường).

– Campaigns should be organized by governments to promote recycling/environmental protection.

– It is suggested that government should organize………….

– It is expected that campaigns should be organized by governments to promote environmental

protection.

  1. Goverments should innovate/upgrade/enhance the public transport system to make it more

convenient and environment-friendly. (Chính phủ nên cải tiến/nâng cấp hệ thống giao thông công cộng

cho tiện ích và thân thiện với môi trường hơn)

The public transport system should be innovated/upgraded/enhanced to make it more convenient and

environment-friendly.

– It is expected that the public transport system should be innovated by the governments to make it more

convenient and environment-friendly.

What should we (individuals) do to protect the environment/ solve environmental

problems?

  1. There are various actions that individuals can take to become greener. (Có nhiều hành động mà

các cá nhân có thể thực hiện để trở nên “xanh hơn”.)

– There are various actions that can be taken by individuals to become greener.

5 | P a g eVSTEP PREPARATION

Take actions to Vo: hành động để…

  1. We should take public transportation instead of driving or riding a motorbike. (Chúng ta nên đi

bằng các phương tiện giao thông công cộng thay vì lái xe hay đi xe mô tô)

– Public transportation should be taken instead of driving or riding a motorbike.

  1. We should reduce the number of flights abroad for holidays. (Chúng ta nên giảm số lượng các

chuyến bay ra nước ngoài du lịch)

– The number of flights abroad for holidays should be reduced.

  1. When shopping, we should choose products with less packaging./avoid buying over-packaged

products. (Khi đi mua sắm, chúng ta nên lựa chọn các sản phẩm với ít bao bì hơn)

– When shopping, products with less packaging should be chosen.

– When shopping, over-packaged products shouldn’t be bought.

  1. We should reuse and recycle useful materials such as paper, glass, or plastic. (Chúng ta nên tái sử

dụng và tái chế các vật liệu có ích.)

– Useful materials such as paper, glass or plastic should be reused and recycled.

  1. We should use several rubbish bins to separate waste. (Chúng ta nên sử dụng các thùng rác khác

nhau để phân loại rác.)

– Waste should be separated by using several rubbish bins.

– Several rubbish bins should be used to separate waste.

Practice 2: Write a paragraph with the topic: What should governments and

individuals do to deal with deforestation?

– There are various actions that both governments and individuals can take to mitigate the

problems of deforestation. One of the most effective measures is for governments to

introduce and enforce stricter laws and regulations to prevent illegal logging (khai thác

gỗ trái phép). Another practical method for approaching this issue is for governments as

well as environmental organizations to carry out reforestation schemes (thực hiện kế

hoạch tái trồng rừng). In other words, more investment should be allocated (khoản đầu tư

lớn hơn nên được phân bổ) by governments to replant the forests which were cut down. As

individuals, we could also take some measures. Firstly, when shopping, we should avoid

buying products made from wood or paper. Moreover, we should actively participate in

campaigns to raise awareness of deforestation impacts and forest preservation.

6 | P a g e7 | P a g e

VSTEP PREPARATION

Liên kết câu với câu/đoạn với đoạn

Chức năng

Từ liên kết, S + V

Ví dụ

Sequence the

ideas

Liệt kê và sắp

xếp các ý

  1. Firstly, (Trước tiên là)/ To

begin with, / In the first place,

……

  1. Secondly,/ The second

(advantage/measure/drawback)

  1. Thirdly,/ Another

(advantage/solution/factor/benefit.)

  1. Finally, (cuối cùng là)/ In the

final place,/ The final

(advantage/factor/benefit/…)

Google is the best search engine because of the

following reasons. In the first place, google is

user-friendly. Secondly, it is fast to use Google.

In the final place, google is informative.

Add similar ideas

(Bổ sung thêm ý

tương đồng)

In addition, (Thêm vào đó)

Additionally, (Thêm vào đó)

Moreover, (Hơn thế nữa)

Furthermore, (Hơn thế nữa)

Google is the best search engine because of the

following reasons. In the first place, google is

user-friendly. Additionally, it is fast to use

Google. In the final place, Google is

informative.

Add a

contrasting idea

(Đưa ra ý đối lập)

However, (Tuy nhiên)

Nevertheless, (Tuy nhiên/ Tuy thế

)

On the contrary, (Trái lại là)

In contrast, (Đối lập là)

On the one hand (Một mặt thì),

……..On the other hand (Mặt

khác thì)

– Technology supports students’ learning.

However, there are several drawba

cks of

technology use

that are worth considering.

– Technology provides students with various free

learning resources. In contrast, it is quite

addictive.

– On the one hand, technology supports students’

learning. On the other hand, technology can

affect negatively students’ physical and mental

health.

To give example

(Giới thiệu ví dụ)

For example, ……

For instance, ……

….such as/like …..

Technology provides students with various free

learning resources such as online textbooks,

educational videos or interactive simulations.

For example, websites like Coursera offer free

online courses on a variety of subjects, which

allows students to learn at their own pace

anywhere with an Internet connection. 8 | P a g e

VSTEP PREPARATION

Clarify the

information

(Làm rõ thông

tin)

In other words, (Nói theo cách

khác thì..)

That is to say, …..

Technology can help students reduce the cost of

studying. In other words, with the availability of

online libraries, students can get access to a vast

collection of resources without having to spend

any money on hard copies of textbooks.

Introduce the

result

(đưa ra kết quả)

As a result, (Kết quả là)

Accordingly,

Consequently,

With the availability of online libraries, students

can get access to a vast collection of resources

without having to spend any money on hard

copies of textbooks. As a result, the cost of

studying could be reduced.

Conclude

(Kết luận)

In short, …

In conclusion,

In summary,

In a nutshell,

Overall,

Technology supports students’ learning in

several ways. In the first place, technology

provides students with various learning

resources such as online textbooks, educational

videos or interactive simulations. For example,

websites like Coursera offer online courses on a

variety of subjects, which allows students to

learn at their own pace anywhere with an

Internet connection. Additionally, technology

can help students reduce the cost of studying. In

other words, with the availability of online

libraries and e-books, students can get access to

a vast collection of resources without having to

spend any money on hard copies of textbooks.

In the final place, technology helps students

improve their knowledge. For instance,

educational apps like Duolingo or Quizlet

provide students with interactive methods to

master foreign languages or academic content.

In conclusion, technology has revolutionized

the ways students learn, making learning more

accessible, affordable and engaging

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